Subscribe Become an Author Sign Up Log In

BiopharmaTrend Blog


Synonymous Mutations Can Affect Protein Folding And Impair Cellular Fitness

Synonymous Mutations Can Affect Protein Folding And Impair Cellular Fitness

Synonymous codon substitutions affect the mRNA coding sequence, but the encoded amino acid sequence remains unchanged. Therefore, ostensibly these substitutions do not affect the phenotype and are often ignored in the study of human genetic variation. However, a variety of studies have shown that protein levels, translational accuracy, secretory efficiency, final folding structure and post-translational modifications are regulated by multiple mechanisms.

Synonymous codon action has gradually emerged, and the precise mechanism has yet to be discovered. Studies on the interference of synonymous codon substitution on the co-translational folding mechanism often lack in vivo evidence, and usually, rare synonymous codons tend to translate more slowly than ordinary synonymous codons. In addition, rare synonymous codons tend to appear in clusters, many of which are preserved during evolutionary history. The folding rates of many protein secondary and tertiary structures are similar to their synthesis rates, and subtle changes in elongation may also alter the folding mechanism.

Theoretically, synonymous rare codon substitutions reduce translational elongation and can provide more time for the N-terminal portion of the nascent protein to form a stable tertiary structure before the C-terminal portion emerges from the ribosome exit tunnel. Is the extra time good or bad for efficient folding? Cells contain a chaperone network to facilitate protein folding. It is unclear whether altered elongation and co-translational folding mechanisms of synonymous codons interfere with chaperone function.

COVID-19 Forcing You To Go Digital? You’re Missing A Trick

COVID-19 Forcing You To Go Digital? You’re Missing A Trick

Moments of crisis always mean change.

In these times, it’s tempting to reach for quotes from leaders who successfully navigated through turbulent times. "Never let a good crisis go to waste," is one often attributed to Churchill and requires us to remain level-headed despite the widespread panic. Companies founded during times of turmoil, like GE, IBM, and Microsoft, know that if they can make their business work during times of upheaval, they can go on to be even more successful in times of stability.

Coronavirus - My Secret Hope

Coronavirus - My Secret Hope

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that cause disease in animals and humans. They were discovered as a cause of the common cold more than 50 years ago. In some studies, up to 30% of colds in children and adults were caused by these viruses. Coronavirus colds, in temperate climes, have a clear seasonality with a preference for the winter months (Figure below). They occur more sporadically in tropical climates, but there they seem to prefer spring and fall.

CF = complement-fixing antibody

Tzager - A Smart AI Agent For Biomedical Research

Tzager - A Smart AI Agent For Biomedical Research

Tzager is an A.I. agent built for biomedicine research, drug discovery and personalized medicine, with the main features being Biochemical Analysis, Predictor Research/Models and Literature Review/Management. The difference with Tzager is that it is not just another deep learning algorithm trained to solve very specific problems, but the intelligence system with its own framework based on Causal Equations and Bayesian Networks.

Microbiome: Can Human Microbes Become A Panacea?

Microbiome: Can Human Microbes Become A Panacea?

The microbiome is implicated in a number of metabolic pathways and communicates closely with our body in health and diseases. Imbalance of microflora is linked to obesity, diabetes, allergies, cancer, and even depression and autism. However, these facts have been ignored for decades. But today, the microbiome market is catching up, attracting considerable investments. The Wall Street Journal reported in 2018 that “from 2011 through 2015, venture funding in microbiome firms soared 458.5 percent to $114.5 million, while overall venture investment grew 103.4 percent to $75.29 billion.